scottish history
A service from

One, Two, Three, Four, Five

The Highland Clearances

Scottish Origins... up to William Wallace

The Battle of Stirling Bridge

Battle of Falkirk & Execution of Wallace

History of the Kilt

Patrick Geddes

Tragedy at Glencoe


Scottish William Wallace
Chapter Three - The Viking invasions, and Scotland's Nationality

One, Two, Three, Four, Five
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A Viking Sword of the Period.[Early Viking Sword]

In the 8th century (793), the Vikings, or plunderers from Norway, (initially), were attracted by the wealth of the Monasterries and the easy treasure to be found within.

Silver, gold and precious manuscripts were sources of great booty. Islands like Iona were frequent targets. In 806, the entire Iona community was murdered and plundered. The Monks of St. Ninian's Island, Shetland, were also attacked, and the monks, pre-warned, quickly buried all that was of value. The Monks hidden hoard, (from the Vikings), of 8th century gold and silver wasn't discovered until 1958. It is a dazzling display of gold and silver relics in remarkably good condition that is as impressive today, as it must have been to the treasure hungry sea raiders in the 8th , 9th and 10th centuries.

** {Author's note: The Viking or Norse involvement in Scotland, Ireland and England (Danes), is a very large topic all by itself. Its scope is huge and an interseting and a topic on which I have written about extensively and previously published. I hope to go into their, generally unknown or misunderstood culture, which had enormous influence on ALL of Britain as well as most of Europe some time down the road. For now, only significant events concerning Vikings (and there are many) raids turned settling will be discussed.} **

By the end of the 9th century the Vikings came to Scotland to raid and settle. It is curious that the Vikings settled so quickly in Scotland and Northern and east Ireland, and slower in England. Certainly resistance was just as fierce in Scotland and Ireland as it was in England. In general none of the native Britains or English were able in any significant way, to stop the Northmen whatsoever. They appeared unbeatable, even when outnumbered. However, the Scots seemed to have something in common with the Viking and after a while intermarriages, both common and noble, with established clans took place in north Scotland (Caithness and Sutherland) and extensively throughout the Western Isles of Scotland, called the Inner and Outer Hebrides. To this day you can find Scottish Clans with direct Viking (Norse) descent. Clan Gunn in the North, Clan MacDonald of the Isles and Clan MacLeod (pronounced Mac-loud), in the west mainland and Isles, along with other Clans (such as MacQueen and MacAulay) are of Norse-Scot origin. They even spoke both Norwegian and Gaelic for several centuries in the Western Isles. All Clans of this unique heritage have a reputation as skilled fighters who seemed to live to fight. These same Clans were some of the earliest to use the longer swords and employ archers in their ranks.

The most likely reason for the massive numbers of Scandinavians looking for new lands is attributed to overpopulation in Norway, Sweden and Denmark, but the truth is we really don't know why the Vikings struck out.

The Norwegian or Norse Vikings, (the word Viking is believed to be derived from the Norse word "vik" meaning bay - since the Vikings used the longships so effectively in bays this seems possible), are the specific ethnic Viking that plundered then settled in Scotland and parts of Ireland. In about 800 A.D. they settled Jarlshof on the Shetland Islands; also Lewis, in the Hebrides, where over one hundred villages still have Norse names.

From the Scottish Western Isles the Norse-Scots (Gael-Galls) settled large areas of Ireland; Iceland; The Isle of Skye, (next to the Scottish mainland); The Isles of Lewis and Harris (lands the Clans MacLeods of Lewis and Harris respectively that they eventually settled), and many other islands in and around Scotland, Ireland, and England. Almost all of the northeast England, i.e. York, are Viking settled areas. Their Longships gave them mastery of the seas. Their fearless style of combat, and pagan belief in glory from death in battle, and their large size for their day, made them nearly invincible foes. Not to mention the fearsome "Berserkers": certain Vikings were said to be afflicted with spirits and often fought without armor or clothing, while biting and chewing on their shields before battle. It is recorded that if the affliction came over these berserkers while not in battle, they had to go ashore and wrestle large boulders and trees until the malady passed. Today, we have the word "berserk" from this peculiar behaviour.

Although a new ship design does not sound like much today, in the eighth and ninth centuries, this ahead of its time ship was far superior than any other European, (or any other Continental) ship ever built and the Scots benefitted from this heritage to this day. The Scots ship building yards, as in Aberdeen, were where a large portion of the English fleet was built, and used against France and Spain in later centuries, owes much to this heritage.

[Viking Helm]
Early Viking & Saxon Helm.

Viking Invasions; Scotland's Nationality

By the middle of the 9th century the Norsemen had moved into the Pictish Kingdom. In the west they attacked the Scots of the Kingdom of Dalriada, who had expanded north into Argyll and Uist.

The Scots/Picts capital near Dunstaffnage near Oban, was threatened and under the leadership of Kenneth MacAlpin, the Scots moved inland, towards Scone on the East coast. The Vikings helped the Scots and southern Picts create an enlarged Kingdom called Alba, with Scone (pronounced Skun or Skoon), as its capital. On the Stone of Scone, Kenneth MacAlpin, already king of Scots, was made King of Picts. The famous Stone had very religious and ceremonial ancestory to the Scots dating back to the 6th - 7th century, and earlier, when the stone is said to have been brought by Fergus to Dalriada to crown the Kings of Scots. (This stone was stolen from the Scots by Edward I "longshanks" of England in the 1296).

At this point in time, circa mid 9th century, the Scots themselves only represented 1/10 (10%) of Scotland's people. They became dominate through battle and marriage. The Celtic (pronounced Keltic) Scots passed Kingship down through the male line. The Celtic Picts, by way of the female.

Therefore, Scots marriages, over time, to Picts put and end to the Pictish system and they became part of Scottish society. The Picts were, due to their own rules of lineage, in essence, married out of existence as a named race. Obviously, they were still around, just called Scots now. All this was due to the male lineage taking precedence of Kingship of the Celtic Scots. But this does not mean the Picts disappeared, just assimilated into Scots and Viking society.

In these genetically mixing years, men broke the meager soil, planted grain, hunted on their beloved horses, (especially the Picts who where by all accounts expert horsemen), herded cattle, carved their Pictish stones with loving care, and built a mix of Christian Churches and pagan fires, and led perfectly normal lives.

As already mentioned, there was a new and more deadly enemy to the Scot-Picts, and an enemy of all in their way. The slender Longships of the Norse raiders, determined and hearty men, (reportedly many were over six feet tall, which for those days was like being seven feet tall today), and also as earlier mentioned -- they invaded at will, all of the British Isles, Europe, Russia and elsewhere for plunder and slaves. Interestingly the Vikings, who were already overpopulated, didn't in fact take many slaves, but they did take the women they wanted.

Kenneth MacAlpin, King of Scots
* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

In 839, an interesting battle took place. Some Picts were fighting the rebellious Scots under Alpin of Gabhran's house, a large army of Norsemen came upon their rear. Though Alpin was killed, and his head impaled by the Picts -- the Pictish army now turned to face the Norsemen and were destroyed in a wild pitched battle. The Picts not only lost to the Norsemen, they were "destroyed almost to their very number". Eoghann, the last King of Picts, died with them and now there was no Pictish leader to oppose the Scots. Why the Norsemen took part in a battle between Picts and Scots, that did not involve the Norsemen, is really easily explained. The Norsemen believed to die in battle was a sure way of entering Vahala, the great warriors reward in "Asgaard", and because of this pagan belief, the Vikings showed or had no fear of dying in combat. They happened upon the battle between the Picts and Scots, which the Scots were losing, and promptly attacked the winners -- the Picts. Besides the last of the Pictish Kings dying in the battle, so did Scots King Alpin. Kenneth the Hardy, son of Scots slain King Alpin, avenged his fathers death by taking the remaining territory of the Picts. His ascendency to King of Scots and Picts, was not a peaceful one though.

The first king of Scots and Picts, (southern Picts), MacAlpin, it is said, murdered seven Earls of Dalriada, kinsmen who might have disputed his claim to King of Scots and Picts, all this took place during a celebration banquet at Scone. The ascendency of Kings was a bloody and treacherous affair -- not for the faint of heart, (or stomach in this case).

One would think that after a history making battle such as the one above described would be a dramatic turning point and famous in all history books. Curiously this didn't happen, and the reason is, most likely, that it actually took another century, and more battles, before the union was a stable union of Pict and Scot. In time, however, it did become stable and the Scots gained tremendous lands, wealth, and access to expert horsemanship, as well as countless more Scottish subjects, from the fall of the Picts. The two peoples had been locked in ferocious combat for so long that the bonds of war had actually helped unite the people, as two metals in a great flame, they became fused and then were tempered by a cooling hand of Christianity.

Kenneth MacAlpin was the first King of Picts and Scots, the same title given to the brother and then the son who succeeded him. The Picts pass from history as most unknown races do, and also with them, the Kingdom of Dalriada, though the evocative memory of that would last for a thousand years among the western Clans.

The Vikings were another story. As already stated, it is worth mentioning again the importance the Norse and Danish had, not only on Scotland alone, but to all of the British Isles and France, Spain, Germany, Russia, countries in Eastern Europe, and the Mediterrainian, as in Sicily, and North Africa. It seems amazing to this author how little credit we as a modern society give to the Vikings as settlers as well as invaders. If you are descended from Europe, there is a very good chance the Vikings had some effect on your heritage.

In Scotland they invaded then settled. The Norsemen had easy pickings in early Scotland, which at the time was a confused collection of rival kinglets, prior to MacAlpin. It was not until 843 that the country was united under already mentioned Kenneth MacAlpin, a Scot who now ruled Scots and Picts.

When Kenneth MacAlpin died in the latter half of the 9th century, Scotland went through a series of mediocre kings who were kept very busy trying to hold the Norsemen out of Scotland and keep its borders fixed. Three kings died in battle, others had short reigns. The Scots unity held, but barely. One hundred and sixty years of Norse invasions and counter attacks occurred, led by, only partially successful kings, (three of whom died in battle) and then, finally the Vikings began to settle more than invade.

The unity did not keep the Norsemen out. They took Dumbarton, on the River Clyde, and lorded it over the area, and they were the death of Scots' Kings, Constantine, Donald the Second and Indulf.

They were the kings in a time when not many Scottish kings died in their beds. Turbulence was never far from the surface, and a king was liable to be struggling against the Norsemen, and new territorial aggression from England, as well as the uncurable rebelliousness of the men of Moray in the north. It was not until Malcolm II arrived on the throne in 1005, that the country even acquired, at last, a geographical unity with fixed borders. Malcolm II vainly tried to extend his borders to occupy parts of the north of England, but had his armies cut to pieces.

England also had trouble with the Vikings, the Danes (a generic term the English called all Vikings), had been invading England and now began to thirst for England's land. They took nearly half of England by force and then demanded to be paid to stop further aggression. Actually, it was an English king's idea to pay the money, or "Danegeld" (Dane gold) as it came to be known, to halt the Viking attacks. This "ransom" or Danegeld was at first successful, and the Danes left the rest of England alone......for a while.

However, the idea of easy pickings, the Danegeld, was just too much for the Vikings to resist and they began to demand more and more payment of Danegeld from the English, at this point in time, England was in serious crisis. Plus they (the Danes) were now settling large areas of England and marrying the locals. The villages in the north and east of England still have many Viking names. Eventually the Danes became so powerful in England, one of their own became King of England. This was King Cnut who took the English throne in 1016.

King Cnut of England (pronounced Kanewt) now began to eye Scotland, especially the Lothian area which he considered belonged to him by right. What right isn't clear. His forces went to repossess it in 1018, and the combined Britons and Scots massacred them on the banks of the River Tweed, at a battle called Carham in 1018, under the King of Scotland Malcolm II, a descendent of Kenneth MacAlpin. The army they defeated was an Angle army from Northumbria, which brought the rich Lothians under Malcolm II's rule. Scotland, and her borders, were now stable, but not necessarily for long.

Meanwhile, in the farthest southwest corner of England, Alfred the Great and his descendents, made a stand against the Danes and won a series of victories, which led in time, to the Saxons reclaiming England. The Vikings, remained however, slowly mixing with Britain and in all of Europe with the native populations and eventually the "Age of the Vikings" comes to a gradual end.

Alba grew even more:

In the same year as the Scottish victory at Carham, 1018, the King of the Britons of Strathclyde died without issue (no heir) and was succeeded by Malcom II's grandson and heir -- Duncan, (who was not the ageing and venerable monarch portrayed by Shakespeare in "MacBeth"), Duncan had some type of claim to the throne of Strathclyde through the female line. Exactly how he did this isn't clear, but 16 years later, in 1034, Duncan became King of Scotland. In this way the frontiers of the Scottish Kingdom were still further extended, reaching far down into what is now English territory.

The Last of the Great Scottish Kings

Duncan I of Scotland, was actually, (as opposed to the more well known Shakespeare version), an impetuous and spoiled young man whose six years of kingship brought glory neither to Scotland nor to his family. Against wise advice, Duncan invaded Northumbria and attacked Durham. The poorly planned campaign was a total disaster for the Scots and Duncan was compelled to withdraw. News of his disasterous and humiliating defeat had preceeded his return to Scotland and in no time he was faced with a revolt among the lords, particularly from his cousin MacBeth, Mormaer (or lord) of Moray. In a skirmish at Bothgouanan, Duncan was slain by MacBeth. Duncan had come to the throne by a strange set of claims to succession. MacBeth had a much better claim, as far as strict descent was concerned: so had his wife, Grauch, who was his cousin. (Not unusual in those days). Both MacBeth and his wife were descended from Kenneth MacAlpin, and the Moray party were keen to have MacBeth the new ruler of Scotland. Again, reality is much different from legend, and as you will see, MacBeth was not at all the same MacBeth portrayed in fiction. Of course I refer, again to Shakespeare's, excellent, but inaccurate version "MacBeth" with whom most of us are familiar. It is a beautiful work of art and fiction, but it is far from reality and worse, gives a good impression of Duncan, while giving a bad version of MacBeth. Royality murdering each other was, almost like a game, in all medieval history, and was quite common and even encouraged among all countries.

Under MacBeth, north and south Scotland were united and a stable Scottish kingdom looked likely. MacBeth appears, contrary to popular belief, to have been a wise monarch who ruled Scotland successfully for seventeen properous years. Coming to power, (in a time, where differing peoples, who were trying to adjust to unity at the same time, but didn't want to give up their own ways of life, which were not always compatibale with those of their neighbours), he organized troops of men to patrol the wilder countryside and enforce some kind of law and order. An example of how stable the kingdom was under MacBeth, was that he was able to make a pilgrimage to Rome in 1050, returned to find his kingdom quiet and went on to enjoy seven more years of successful rule.

There is actually so much to MacBeth's life prior and during his reign that is generally unknown and is very fascinating. I plan, some time in the future, to devote a whole work to MacBeth -- the greatest of early medieval Scottish kings. He did have his battles, and he dealt with them as decisively as he did every other aspect of his rule, but that is another story..........

Unfortunately, MacBeth (who had just united Scotland for 17 years) was killed in the year 1057. One of Duncan's sons, Malcolm, (known as Ceanmor or Canmore, meaning 'big head'), who was brought up in exile in England, raised an army (with English help), invaded Scotland and reached deep into Aberdeenshire. At the battle of Lumphanan, he defeated MacBeth, who was slain in battle, and after some further resistance, he became king of Scotland, calling himself Malcolm III -- with English help.

NEVER again were the emerging Kings of England to leave Scotland alone.

There are times in history that one could say were turning points, without being overly dramatic, MacBeth's reign, had it continued ..... well, Scotland might now rule England.

The north of Britain would absorb the life giving red of the Scots and English for seven more centuries of brutal carnage.

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